Tuesday, 10 May 2011

Tutorial Eight: Assistive Technology

Assistive Technology, what is it? Cook and Hussey (1995, p.5) define an assistive technology device as "any item, piece of equipment or product system whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized that is used to increase or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities". 

What is that in simpler terms? An assistive technology device is an item used to assist somebody in a task and make it easier for them to carry out. 

What does the first definition cover? According to Cook and Hussey (1995, p.6) it firstly includes "commercial, modified, and customized devices". Second, it emphasizes the "functional capabilities of individual with disabilities. Finally by looking at the individual it focuses on the importance of "treating each application of technology as a unique circumstance".

In other words it focuses on the device and the individual working together, and does not refer to individuals with disabilities by what they cannot do but focuses on improving what they can do.

Recently I was privileged to attend an assistive technology workshop for class, held by a representative from the wonderful Star Mobility (http://www.starmobility.co.nz/). Within this session we were presented with a number of marvelous assistive devices and were informed of their many practical uses. Even though I was interested by all of the items, I must exercise some restraint, and only speak about one of them in this post.

Today dear readers, I'm going to take you on a journey into the wonderful world of "TALKING TINS". That is right, you heard correctly, talking tins. No I am not in some magical Disney movie where kitchen appliances and food items can talk, this is real life. Hard to believe, I know, but by the end of this post, you shall be a believer.

These.....are talking tins.

This picture is from a very useful site http://www.talkingproducts.co.uk/talk_pod.htm

Talking tins are voice recording devices and can sit on cans via the magnet that is inserted inside. Individuals with a visual impairment can benefit most from these devices as at it can help them identify objects of a similar shape, by re-recording on the talking tin what food item it is. This can help them to remain more independent in the kitchen. Adapters are available to purchase that will enable these talking tins to be used on other house hold items such as cleaning bottles and containers. 

The price for the talking tins pictured above is approximately $35 each, but are usually sold in packs of three. A pack of three talking tins and associated accessories can be bought from Star Educational (http://www.star-educational.co.nz/view_details.php?detail=true&cat=21&subcat=&id=46) for $106. These featured talking tins are able to record up to 30 seconds of  multiple messages, that can be played back sequentially through the two record buttons and the play button. These talking tins are re-recordable, reusable and the batteries are easy to replace. The size of these talking tins is 77mm x 22mm and should be able to fit any standard store bought tin. They are also designed in a way that still enables the tins to be stacked on top of each other for storage purposes.
So as previously mentioned it can help people with visual deficits identify food and other household items, but it has also been suggested that this particular talking tin would be useful for someone with a short term memory deficit because of the sequential message playback, to help remind them of the things they need to do.
The following are some helpful links about talking tins.

This is a link to a PDF that outlines the use and features of a talking tin and instructions on how to record and change the batteries: http://www.talkingproducts.co.uk/pdf/talking_tins.pdf
Here is another helpful link from the same company (located in the UK): http://www.talkingproducts.co.uk/talking_tins_visual_impairment.htm
Here is a blog that is around the use of adaptive switches used for gaming; talking tins are mentioned at the bottom of the this blog: http://switchgaming.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.html

This is a link to a company that has developed an activity book to allow users to get the most out of talking tins: http://www.sitech.co.nz/product_details/c/280/p/203

This website is extremely interesting. It discusses the possible applications of talking tins within a school environment and the benefits that can come from it: http://www.taglearning.com/taglearning/talking-tins-40-second-digital-clip-recording.html

This is a link to the only video I could find of talking tins being used on YouTube: www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUt0KBq0yP4


Cook, A. M., & Hussey, S. M. (1996). Assistive technologies: Principles and practice. USA: Mosby.

Tutorial Seven: Linking to Blogs of Interest and Exchanging Comments

For this tutorial I had to make a blog feed to 5 chosen blogs as can be seen at the top right of my blog.

We were also required to post comments on other blogs and thus I left a comment on the group video posted on Erin's blog (See my links list of OT student blogs). Below is some evidence of this.

I too have had comments on some of my postings, and if you don't believe me here is some evidence.

This one from a fellow student and blogger:

And this one from my lecturer:

Monday, 9 May 2011

Tutorial Six: The Internet and Online Communities

Building on from the previous posts here are some hyperlinks to three relevant online communities:

Care Cure Community:

Alzheimer's Association Online Community:  

CampbellTeaching (YouTube):

A brief description of each community:

Care Cure Community is on online forum specifically to do with spinal cord injuries. They have a number of forums that the public can contribute to that cover a number of subjects within the cares and cures for a person with a SCI. SCI nurses contribute to these forums to answer the questions from the public and provide information to people about the best care to give if you are caring for a person with a SCI and also the latest in the research for a cure. The public are also able to ask questions, answer questions, or share and discuss a relevant piece of information. Within the cares category is a forum set up specifically focusing on pressure areas. 

How interactive is this site? This site is very interactive with many people asking questions, answering questions and sharing relevant and helpful information.
How can people contribute? People can contribute by starting or participating in a discussion thread. Members who join are able to ask any question relevant to the thread topic, leaving other members and the medical members to answer the questions and provide advice.
What do they contribute?  As mentioned they can contribute questions and answers, links to relevant information and share personal experiences of either having or caring for someone who has a pressure sore.
Example of the topics being discussed: This is an example of an online member who suffers from a SCI. The members introduces their current experience of a developing pressure sore and asks for some clarification as to what to do. The post is answered by a SCI nurse that is a moderator for the forum.

Excerpt from http://sci.rutgers.edu/forum/showthread.php?t=82229

Alzheimer's Association Online Community is also a public online forum that specifically focuses on topics related to Alzheimer's disease. Within this, a caregivers forum has been established and a specific thread of pressure ulcer's. This is a place where caregivers can ask questions, answer questions, share information or share their personal experiences of pressure ulcer's developing on individuals with Alzheimer's.

How interactive is this site? This site is also very active with members of the forum making regular posts that consist of questions, answers, information, links to relevant articles and sites and relevant personal experiences.
How can people contribute? Members can contribute by posting on a current discussion or by starting a new discussion or poll. They have the ability to make and reply to posts and share relevant information.
What do they contribute? As mentioned many provide links to relevant websites, articles, experiences with caring for pressure sores, relevant experiences, and asking questions for others to answer.

Campbell Teaching (YouTube) is an individual who posts educational videos on YouTube; many of which have a medical theme. Campbell has posted a number of videos regarding pressure sores giving an in depth look at how they develop and the different stages and types. One of his videos in particular has accumulated a number of comments on the online community of YouTube, some with general comments and others with question to which he has responded. 

How interactive is this site? This site is interactive in that members can post and reply to comments, rate the video and have the ability to like and dislike the comments that are posted. Members also have the ability to subscribe the the YouTube channel of the person that has posted the video in order to "follow" them and any further videos that are posted.
How can people contribute? People contribute by sharing their opinions in the form of comments and ratings. They also contribute through their comments by starting discussions with other video views and even the poster of the video.
What do they contribute? In this specific case, many people have commented on how helpful and informative the video has been for them. There are also a number of members leaving relevant questions much like the previous forums discussed, in the hope that someone will give them an answer. Generally members do answer questions of other members with relevant helpful information, such as how to find a relevant pressure relieving cushion to improve their condition. Members also share their personal opinions, both positive and negative.
Example of topics being discussed: 
The following example is one of a viewer leaving a an excerpt of her personal situation and the problem she is facing in terms of caring for an individual with a pressure sore. Her question is answered by the person who created and posted the video.

Why do people contribute to these online communities? 
Online communities are similar to any communities in the sense that being a member of such a community gives you a sense of place and belonging; that you are not alone. By seeking answers from others with a similar experience or knowledge it provides it's members with the support that they may not be getting elsewhere. The information shared in these examples of online communities, the information shared is intended to be reciprocal; a give and take form of communication. Members respond to each others needs thus providing that communal support.  

Of course like many other things I have discussed on previous blogs, these online communities post a number of ethical issues. It can open members up to be vulnerable when they share such personal experiences in such a publicly accessible space; that perhaps some individual might try and take advantage of them. Also some of the information shared is only based on experience and is not based on legitimate professional medical advice. There is also no means of proving members are who  they say they are, such as "medical professionals" that contribute "free medical advice" to the forums.

However the benefits of having such online communities is that it has a way of reaching a specific group of people from many walks of life, in many places of the world, finds a common link between them all and provides them with an opportunity to communicate. For individuals who suffer from or care for those who suffer from pressure areas/sores, it can be very difficult to find people with the same experience in real life, let alone people that want to talk about it openly. The internet has a way of giving people the confidence of having a voice and speaking up, partly because of the anonymity of the user names where faces cannot be put to names. 

Apart from these benefits, online communities such as these can lack certain things that traditional communities can provide. Traditional communities provide true relationships and support, on a much more personal level. It gives the community a face. Many more things can be communicated on a face to face level such as body language, emotions, change in voice and tone that can not be communicated over the internet. Somehow I do not think that emoticons will ever be taken seriously :(  

So really it all depends on what a person is individually seeking; sometimes an online community is all you need, and sometimes it may not offer you enough. However when seeking for online support keep a watchful eye on the information being shared.

Wednesday, 27 April 2011

Tutorial Five: Video Production Sessions

YouTube; the marvelous world of YouTube! Oh how glorious and magnificant it is! But how marvelous is it? What does it offer the world that it did not already have?

Karch (n.d.) describes YouTube as a "popular video hosting and sharing service". It allows users to upload and view videos, and is accessible to people all over the world. Users can also comment and rate the videos and subscribe to specific user channels, so they will be notified when another video is posted by that person.

Since being founded in 2005, YouTube has just exploded on an international scale! In May 2010 YouTube exceeded 2 billion views a day. Amazing! Who needs to pay for advertising when you have that level of traffic?

What does YouTube have to do with this post? Everything. Today I would like to paint you a mental picture using different online videos in order to demonstrate a topic of interest from one of my fieldwork placements. So allow me to start with the background.

It was my first ever Occupational Therapy placement; I was stationed in community intellectual disability. In terms of my personal knowledge and experience at that point, it was extremely limited in regards to both Occupational Therapy and intellectual disability. As my time on fieldwork progressed many new areas of knowledge were presented to me; one in particular was pressure areas (that develop into pressure sores or pressure ulcers) and pressure risk assessments. In fact I was so interested that I accepted the opportunity to complete a project comparing pressure risk assessments and their relevance to our client group and present it to a number of OTs. You could say I felt a little bit of pressure, however this pressure wasn't physical, but psychological. This is how I developed an interest in pressure areas.

As mentioned our client group was made up of individuals that had some form of an intellectual disability, however many of them also had accompanying physical disabilities as well, and were wheelchair bound.

Due to the fact that many of the clients were non verbal they were unable to tell carer's and family when they were in pain or uncomfortable and they were unable to move themselves to relieve that pressure; some clients were also unable to feel pain. Thus it became the duty of the carer's and family to be diligent in providing the necessary cares to prevent pressure areas. My supervisors job was to educate carer's on pressure areas and also identify the pressure risks that an individual client may have through assessments, the possible causes of developing pressure areas and apply appropriate solutions either in the form of skills training or the application of equipment.

The following are videos that are extremely relevant to this topic:

This is a great video that provides an overview of what pressure ulcers are, how they develop and how to prevent them through various types of equipment. This is the type of information that I witnessed my supervising OT sharing with client's, carer's and family members as a way to help them understand what to look out for and why.

This is a video made by two nursing students who are doing a teaching project on pressure ulcers. In this video (part one of two) the students explain to a patient a brief description of pressure ulcers - what they are and the four stages in which they develop. Information that is also relevant for an OT to use during education sessions.

In part two, these same students show and explain simple tips in how to prevent pressure ulcers. This information is helpful for Occupational Therapists, as it will give you extra insight in to what patients are susceptible to pressure areas and the ways in which they may be prevented. This information may also help during any education sessions for carers or family to help improve patients cares.

This video gives an insight to the type of mattress that an Occupational Therapist may prescribe for a client who is at high risk of developing pressure areas. It provides a great diagram as to how the mattress works to prevent pressure areas by using alternating air to shift the distribution of weight to different cells in the mattress and to help circulate blood flow. I was fortunate enough to see a number of alternating air mattresses during my fieldwork placement and to hear the benefits that they have had for the client's.

And last but not least, here is a video of a Physical Therapist explaining the important steps to go through when selecting a pressure relieving wheelchair cushion for a client. Personally I think this information is extremely relevant to Occupational Therapy, as this is one of the areas that an OT can come across often, depending on the setting.

As the first video explained that equipment to prevent pressure areas is needed in all areas of life; wheelchair cushioning is one of those important areas to address as it is where a client will spend a great deal of their day sitting; just as a mattress is where a client spends a great deal of the night sleeping. This video explains the important features to look out for and why.

During fieldwork, I meet with a client that had had a lot of difficulty finding the right cushion, and had to trial a number of them to get it right, as they were extremely susceptible to pressure areas. My supervising OT explained the difficulty they had had and the physical and emotion relief they experienced when they had finally found the one that worked best.


Karch, M. (n.d.). Youtube explained - overview of the google video sharing tool. Retrieved April 28, 2011, from http://google.about.com/od/moreaboutgoogleaps/p/youtubeprofile.htm

YouTube (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2011, from youtube.com

Thursday, 31 March 2011

Tutorial Four: Video Production Sessions

it's As eAsy As Abc

This is An Awesome video we mAde in clAss, bAsed on A letter of the AlphAbet.
Bet you cAn't guess whAt letter it is!

It wAs filmed in the spAce of 15 minutes. Absolutely AmAzing!

Absolutely no plAnning wAs done prior to filming; we decided to wing it in order provide ourselves An opportunity to exercise our Artistic Abilities. We hAd only briefly touched on filming techniques prior to this video being mAde, however the content spouted purely from the fountAin of spontAneity. Of course, editing of thAt mAterial wAs done in order to get the finAl product.